Helicopter emissions from EMS helicopters may include a variety of gases and particulates. Gas emissions include hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur oxides from the combustion of jet fuel. These contaminants are of concern as they cause odors and irritation for the building occupants. Depending on the mode of operation (take off, landing, or idling) will generate varying levels of contaminants.
Diesel emissions are also present at other areas of a healthcare facilities. Loading docks, ambulance bays, and emergency generators all can produce the same odorous contaminants that bother helipads.